Carbon dating of the dead sea scrolls


Testamentary literature is well attested among the new materials from the Scrolls.

Testaments attached to Levi, Naphtali, Kohath and Amram have emerged.

It has much in common with the literature of visionary recitals in Chapter 1 and that of Hymns and Mysteries in Chapter 7.


It is also interesting to see the descendants of Levi or the priests denoted in 1.2.2 as a Righteous seed.

(7) [Then you shall have a blessed and good [harvest.] He who sows Good reaps Good, (8) [while he who sows Evil,] his [sowing turns against him.] And now, my sons, [teach] Torah, its interpretation and Wisdom (9) [to your sons, and Wisdom shall be with you] as an eternal honor. [the Kingdom will not] pass away from you until (19)... And [when you begin to offer up one of these [wood]s upon [the] altar and the [fire begins] (8) to burn them, you are to sprinkle the blood] on the sides of the altar. He will overthrow his evil generation (6) and there will be [great wrath]. (2) your ju[dgment] but you will not be gui[lty]... This text derives its name from an allusion to Amram as my son in Line 9 of the Second Column, and to Levi as the father of the speaker in Line 11. ff.) Here, we have as beautifully preserved a piece of pseudepigrapha as one could wish.

He who teaches Wisdom (10) [will find] honor [therein. Again, [wash] (9) [your hands and feet of the blood, then begin to offer up] sa[lt]ed portion[s.] As for [its[ he[ad,]... his Wisdom [will be great.] He will make atonement for all the children of his generation. When he arises there will be Lying and violence, and the people will wander astray [in] his days and be confounded. The instructions it conserves are also of the most high-minded, zealous, and xenophobic kind, presumably in the style of the proverbial Phineas (also a descendant of Kohath), the archetypical progenitor of both Maccabean and Zealot movements.

This has clear Zadokite implications according to some of the definitions we have set forth above, particularly when Zadok is taken in its esoteric sense as denoting Righteousness.

The reference to Abel Mayin in 1.2.17 is interesting, too.

This is particularly true in view of the visionary materials from 18-21 thereafter. 16:4 Abel Mayin is designated as a city in Naphtali probably on the way to Syria in the northern part of the country.


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